SML Dev Setup

March 09, 2016

When it comes right down to it, SML is a pretty great language. It’s clear that extensive thought has gone into its design and implementation. I quite enjoy programming in SML, due in no small part to my collection of workflow hacks that make editing and developing with SML responsive and interactive.

We’re going to be walking through a couple easy steps you can take to make developing SML feel more fluid, both in and out of your editor. I have a slight preference for Vim on OS X, but many of these steps are platform agnostic.

Installing SML Locally

While developing SML in a remote environment like the shared Andrew Unix machines makes it easy to dive right in, working with SML for prolonged periods of time is best done locally.

On OS X and Ubuntu, the two most popular SML implementations are already packaged. Take the time to install a version of SML right now. At CMU, we use SML/NJ, which is convenient because it has a REPL that lets you play around with SML interactively. If you’d like to play around with compiling and distributing programs written in SML, you might want to install MLton.

Install SML from your package manager
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# SML/NJ on OS X
brew install smlnj
# -- or --
# MLton on OS X
brew install mlton

# SML/NJ on Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install smlnj
# -- or --
# MLton on Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install mlton

Feel free to install both if you’d like; they’ll play nicely with each other and each offers advantages over the other.

Note for OS X users: if you’ve never used Homebrew before, you’ll need to install it first.

Getting Comfortable with SML/NJ

The rest of these steps should apply regardless of whether you’re working on SML locally or remotely.

One thing that I’ve seen far too many times from course documentation is that they tell students to run their code like this:

  1. Run sml
  2. Type use "foo.sml"; or CM.make "sources.cm"; at the REPL

Don’t get me wrong; this works, but there’s a better way. Being responsible CLI-citizens, we should always be looking for ways to tab-complete. Let’s do this by changing our workflow:

  1. Run sml foo.sml or sml -m sources.cm

Look at that! We’ve, - dropped a step (having to launch the REPL first), and - introduced tab completion into our workflow (because the shell has filename completion)

It’s the little things, but they add up.

Enhancing the REPL

Speaking of the little things, when using the SML REPL, you don’t have access to all the usual command line niceties like command history and access to arrow keys for editing, let alone Vi-like keybindings. To get started, you’ll have to change how you launch the SML/NJ REPL. In particular, we’re going to preface our commands with rlwrap:

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# instead of this...
$ sml

# use this:
$ rlwrap sml

rlwrap stands for “readline wrap.” Readline is a library that simply adds to a REPL program all the features mentioned above:

  • Command history tracking
  • Line editing with arrow keys
  • Configurability through the ~/.inputrc file
    • We can use this to get fancy features like Vi keybindings

For more information, see these lines of my inputrc, a small part of my dotfiles repo on GitHub.

Setting Up Vim

Programming is so much more enjoyable when you’re not fighting your editor. For me, this means striving to get the most out of Vim. In this section, I’ll outline all the cool tips and tricks I have for developing SML in Vim.

But first, if you’ve never taken a look into how to configure Vim, I suggest you start out by walking through this quick workshop called Vim as an IDE. It’ll teach you where to start when configuring Vim and get you set up with a bunch of standard plugins that improve on the standard Vim experience tenfold.

No actually, take a second and walk through it. We’ll still be here when you’re done, and you’ll appreciate Vim more when you’re done.

Syntastic

From the Syntastic documentation:

Syntastic is a syntax checking plugin for Vim that runs files through external syntax checkers and displays any resulting errors to the user. This can be done on demand, or automatically as files are saved. If syntax errors are detected, the user is notified and is happy because they didn’t have to compile their code or execute their script to find them.

And the best part? Syntastic ships with a checker for SML by default if you have SML/NJ installed.

If you didn’t just install Syntastic from the Vim as an IDE walkthrough, you can visit their homepage for installation instructions. Go ahead and do this now, then try writing this in a file called test.sml:

test.sml
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val foo : string = 42

You should see an ‘x’ next to the line and a description of the error from the type checker. You can imagine how handy this is.

Extra Syntastic Setup

Syntastic has their own set of recommended settings that you can add at your discretion. At the very least, I’d suggest adding these lines to your vimrc:

.vimrc
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...

augroup mySyntastic
  " tell syntastic to always stick any detected errors into the location-list
  au FileType sml let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list = 1

  " automatically open and/or close the location-list
  au FileType sml let g:syntastic_auto_loc_list = 1
augroup END

" press <Leader>S (i.e., \S) to not automatically check for errors
nnoremap <Leader>S :SyntasticToggleMode<CR>

...

By default, whenever you save your file, Syntastic will place symbols in Vim’s sign column next to lines with errors. The first two settings above tell Syntastic to also show a summarized list of errors at the bottom of the screen. The final setting lets you press <Leader>S (which is usually just \S) to disable all that. This is useful when you’re still unfinished and you know your SML isn’t going to type check. Press it again to re-enable it.

Also, a tip for those who’ve never used Vim’s location list feature before: you can close the list with :lclose.

vim-better-sml

The curious at this point might be wondering if Syntastic is smart enough to figure out when the file you’re using requires a CM file to compile and uses it to show you where the errors are instead. As it turns out: no, that’s not a feature Syntastic wants to include by default. However, the functionality isn’t hard to implement, and there’s already a plugin for it!

vim-better-sml is one of my Vim plugins. Here’s a quick rundown of its features:

  • As already mentioned, it will detect when your file requires a CM file to build, and will pass along the information to Syntastic
  • let expressions are indented one level under fun declarations
  • *.sig files are properly detected as SML signature files
  • Apostrophe characters are treated as keywords characters
  • The comment string is properly registered for SML files

For more information, including how to install it, check out the homepage: vim-better-sml.

General Vim Settings

As a quick addendum, one common complaint people have when editing SML is that it forces the line to wrap if it extends to 80 characters. Some people don’t like that it does this, and others don’t like that it doesn’t do it frequently enough (namely, it only wraps the line if your cursor extends past 80 characters, not the end of the line).

If you don’t want Vim to do any of this wrapping, run this:

Disable hard line wrapping
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setlocal textwidth=0

If you’d like this change to persist between Vim sessions, add it to ~/.vim/after/ftplugin/sml.vim. These folders and file likely don’t exist yet; you’ll have to create them. The after folder in Vim is used to override settings loaded from plugins. As you might have guessed, files in here are run after plugin code is.

Conversely, if you’d like a little better idea when Vim’s going to hard wrap your line, you can add this line to your vimrc:

Show a color column
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set colorcolumn+=0

Note: this will only work if you’re using Vim 7.4 or above. This setting tells Vim to draw a solid column at the same width as the value of the textwidth setting.

TL;DR

We covered a lot, so here’s a quick recap:

  • Install SML locally. It’s super easy to do on OS X and Linux (use your package manager), and means you don’t have have a Wi-Fi connection to develop SML.
  • Invest time into learning Vim. Here’s a reference: Vim as an IDE.
  • Install Syntastic. It tells you what lines your errors are on.
  • Install vim-better-sml. It includes some features Syntastic doesn’t by default, and includes a couple extras.
  • Consider using setlocal textwidth=0 or set colorcolumn+=0 to deal with the 80-character restriction when writing SML files.

And as always, you can see even more Vim settings in my dotfiles repo on GitHub.



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